| against their walls, in magnificent style, as they did
during the time of our visit.
" Some of the malthouses are even more ancient than the
old brewery, having been erected in the seventeenth century.
Beneath the ground floor of one of them, now used for storing
ales, are subterraneous caverns, called the "Catacombs,
" which are curiously constructed and of great extent.
Another of the makings formed part of an extensive distillery,
which, in the days of James II., was famous for its whisky.
" On entering the offices of Mr R. H. White, the managing
partner, we were entertained by that gentleman with a brief
history of the brewery. Afterwards we were introduced to the
head brewer, Mr Armstrong, who directed us through the brewery,
and finally took us to the mailings. We commenced our observations
at the malthouse, a two-storyed building to the left of the
entrance, and adjoining the brewhouse. It is used for receiving
and storing malt from the various malthouses, and contains,
on the ground floor, the mill chamber. The room is paved with
stone, and contains one of Milne's malt mills, enclosing a
pair of pressed rollers, capable of crushing thirty-five quarters
of malt per hour. Before reaching the rolls, the malt is most
effectually screened in the following manner. The malt hopper
is situated about 18 feet from the rolls, and the malt is
conveyed thither by a propeller 11 feet long, inside a cylinder.
This propeller is fashioned to act as conveyor and polisher,
and delivers into the malt screen. We do not remember having
seen anything like it before. It was designed by Messrs Milne
& Son to meet the special requirements here, and has been
found to work admirably. When the malt has been crushed between
the rolls, it is carried by an elevator to the top of the
building, and thence, by an Archimedean screw, to the gristcase
depending over the tuns. The remainder of this floor is used
for storing cumins in sacks, and for a fitters' shop.
" Pursuing our way upstairs to the top floor, we passed
an enormous flywheel, connected with the shafting of the main
engine, which is for driving the mill machinery and working
" The whole extent of the large room above is used for
storing malt, and, fixed in the floor, is a hopper, into which
the sacks are tipped, when the malt disappears as fast as
it is put in.
" Before following the crushed malt to its destination,
we have something to say about the water used, which plays
an important part in a brewery. The brewing liquor is drawn
from a well, 80 feet deep, situated in the old brewhouse,
which has supplied the brewery for two centuries, and is of
the finest quality. It is particularly free from objectionable
matter, which, along with the first-class material always
used, accounts for the excellent keeping qualities of even
the lightest ale
"Through an opening in the wall we passed into the brewhouse,
a square structure with an open roof and a paved floor. On
the north side, reached by a staircase in the centre, is a
broad gallery, on which the coppers are erected; and over
them, at a slight elevation, a special copper tank for heating
brewing water, which holds 100 barrels. On the floor of the
house, which measures 50 feet square, are three cast-iron
mash-tuns, having a total capacity of forty quarters—viz.,
eight, twelve, and twenty quarters. The difference in the
capacity of these vessels indicates the successive and proportionate
increase of the trade during the last half century. These
tuns, all of which are fitted with covers, telescopic spargers,
and slotted iron draining plates, are commanded by an extra
size portable Steel's mashing machine, which possesses a 5-feet
gun-metal cylinder, and runs on wheels.
" In the basement of the building is a very capacious
under-back, for receiving the contents of all the mash-tuns,
and from whence the wort is pumped direct to the coppers.
"Following our guide, we ascended to the copper-stage,
to take a peep at the insides of the three coppers, which
hold respectively thirty-five, seventy, and eighty barrels.
They are all supplied with boiling fountains, and are heated
by fire. As we approached them, the copper-man, as he is called,
was emptying the hops from the bags into the boiling wort,
and their fragrance soon filled the air with appetising odour.
The hop-store, afterwards visited, occupies the upper floor
of the beer-bottling house, and is capable of holding 300
" Leaving the coppers behind us, we descended to the
mashing floor, to inspect the hopback, built into a recess
on that level. It is a square vessel, holding ninety barrels,
and beneath it, sunk into the floor, is a receiver, 10 feet
deep, into which the strained wort runs, and from whence it
is pumped to the coolers by a powerful three-throw pump. We
next bent our steps to the top of the adjoining building,
where the cooling department is situated. On our way thither,
a capacious tank was pointed out to us, holding 200 barrels,
which receives the waste water from the refrigerator. It commands
a large oval heating tank,