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Prestonpans and Vicinity

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left in. The other seams are all worked on the "longwall" system, with walls about go feet long. Where coal is presently being worked, the depth under the sea bed varies from 360 to 900 feet.
The winding engines are coupled and vertical with the drum overhead. The cylinders arc 25 inches in diameter with a stroke of 6 feet, and the drums are 10 feet in diameter on the "Great" Seam side, and 13 feet 3 inches in diameter on the " Jewel" side.
The shaft pumping is performed by a Cornish engine, with a single cylinder 70 inches in diameter with a stroke of 12 feet. There are four plunger lifts, three of 22 inches in diameter, and one 17 inches in diameter with a stroke of 10 feet. The dook pumping is performed by compressed air and hydraulic pumps. There are two air compressors on the surface, having each a 20-inch steam and 18-inch air cylinder with a stroke of 4 feet. These drive dook pumps in the "Great" Seam. There is a Brown hydraulic pump in the " Jewel" Seam, driven by surplus water, which requires to be run down from the "Great" Seam to the "Jewel" to balance the shaft pumps.
An hydraulic installation was recently erected with the intention of supplementing the shaft pumps and taking the place of the compressed air pumps. The power plant consists of a pair of coupled horizontal engines, with cylinders 27 inches in diameter by $ feet stroke driving pumps directly from the piston rods to keep up a constant pressure of 1, 000 lbs. per square inch in the hydraulic mains. The Brown pumps to supplement the shaft pumps are, one in "Great" Seam to pump 500 gallons per minute to a height of 100 fathoms vertical, and one in "Jewel" Seam to raise 200 gallons per minute to a vertical height of 36 fathoms.
All the engine haulage underground is on the endless rope system with single hutches, the speed being about 1 1/3 mile per hour. The rope is under the hutches, and the mode of attachment to the rope is by Smallman's clips.
The engines are on the surface, and are coupled horizontal engines \\ith cylinders 22 inches in diameter by 5 feet stroke. The driving clip pulley is of the Thorncliffe type with mild steel liners in the cheeks. It is 8 feet in diameter and is on the crank shaft. It is intended ultimately to drive these engines at 21 revolutions per minute, giving a speed of 6 miles per hour to the band rope. At present the speed is 14 or 15 revolutions per minute, giving the band rope a speed of fully 4 miles per hour. The band rope is |-inch diameter, galvanised patent improved steel, and has been on twenty-six months, during which time the splice has been renewed three or four times. It has travelled about 55, 000 miles, and is in fairly good condition. Including the driving pulleys, it passes over eight pulleys 8 feet in diameter and one 12 feet in diameter.
There is gearing in both seams for reducing the speed of the haulage ropes to one-third of that of the band rope. In the "Great" Seam this is done by passing the band rope round a 12 feet pulley driving a "C. " pulley 4 feet in diameter for the haulage on the same shaft. In the "Jewel" Seam where the haulage will ultimately be heavy, the speed is reduced by spur gearing, all the clip pulleys being 8 feet in diameter, so as to allow of a large haulage rope being used. The underground haulage ropes at present in use are all 2 1/12 inches circumference.
The ventilation of the colliery is produced by. a Guibal fan 22 feet diameter by 7 feet wide, running about 60 revolutions per minute. The fan is driven by an engine with an 18-inch cylinder and 18-inch stroke.
Steam is generated for the colliery and brickwork at a range often Lancashire boilers, each 28 feet by 7 1/2 feet. The stalk is 200 feet high, 17 feet square outside at the base, and 9 feet square inside at the top. The steam pressure is 70 lbs. per square inch.
>On account of the saltness and hardness of the pit water, condensers have been erected to obtain a supply of hot distilled water for the boilers.


On the pithead, the loaded hutches gravitate to the tumblers,
and the empty hutches are brought back to the back scaffold
by a creeper. There are six self-acting tumblers, five of which
are used for coal, and one for fire-clay. There are five double
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